Dr. Youle received an A.B. degree from Albion College and his Ph.D. degree from the University of South Carolina where he worked on the protein toxin ricin. He joined the lab of David Neville at the National Institute of Mental Health for postdoctoral work on the engineering of new cell-type-specific protein toxins. He joined the Surgical Neurology Branch of NINDS in 1985 as a principal investigator where he has developed new treatment strategies for brain tumors. His lab is now exploring the molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death and the interplay between mitochondrial quality control pathways, autophagy, ubiquitination and neurodegenerative disease.